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Monday, January 31, 2011

The `feel good' factor

Provide lots of positive, inspiring, uplifting and excited self-talk. Allow feeling good to flow into your body on a regular basis.

                                   DREAM Choose thoughts that encourage and bring joy.

     "Aim for your star, no matter how far, you must reach high above and touch your life with love, you must never look back, but charge on! Attack! See your goal, your star of desire, see it red hot, feel it burning, you must be obsessed with it to make it your true yearning,

Let zeal spice up your life

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Enthusiasm brings a breath of freshness to even mundane activities. It livens up the day and drives one towards knowledge, experience and invention

  IT LIFTS YOU UP: Enthusiasm keeps you going.

      A person went to a forest to meet a saint and asked him, "People say you have a magic coin and anyone owning it will never feel unhappy. Is it true?"

The dawn of a new beginning

There is immense cheer and hope with the advent of the New Year.

A NEW DAY: A new start. 

Is your mind in good shape?

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Opting for easy, habitual solutions will lull the brain into lethargy. Go on and challenge it to seek out unusual solutions and the mind will turn alert, attentive and agile

Take on students' test of nerves

WORKOUT: The brain too needs to be exercised to stay fit.  
Nature has given us everything, five senses (Jnanendriyas) to function and organs (Karmendriyas) to work, but it left the mind to our discretion. To develop a healthy mind, exercise all your mental muscles and be able to move it in different ways. It includes logical judgement, critical appraisal, analytical assessment, visual thinking and verbal communication.

Efficiency is the ratio between output and input. It deals with how much of your resources you put in to get the maximum yield.
It is different from `effectiveness', which normally deals with quality. It is the resolve to make exactly what you want to do, irrespective of the quantum of resources, energy and time. We have to balance between effectiveness and efficiency depending upon the nature of work. Regrettably we fail many times to determine where to be more effective and when to be more efficient. Tom Wujec, author of an outstanding book `Mental Fitness,' asks us to think why some minds are sharp, energetic and overflowing with creative ideas and some others less than dazzling? He gives two reasons: demands made by their way of living, and their mental habits.
People get mentally out of shape when they stop challenging the abnormal potentiality of the mind and intellect.
This happens when a person becomes mentally complacent and opts for quick, habitual solutions, confining himself to a small range of interests rather than purposeful thought.
The author gives an example of a highly professional computer engineer, who does an excellent job and is financially very sound but weak at organising his financial budget, managing his time or holding a good conversation or telling a funny story.
There are more than one million jokes, originally created by someone. Did you ever create a joke of your own? In the initial stages your mind declares it impossible but soon you get amazing ideas.
Train your mind in the sphere of creativity. There are four basic qualities that characterise a fit mind: cerebral strength, intellectual endurance, mental flexibility and emotional coordination.
Cerebral strength
Cerebral strength is the ability to work through complexity, sort out between difficult options, narrowing down to the nucleus and concentrating on it, till the result is achieved. Some students fail in this aspect. Instead of concentrating on the path, they search for escapist venues or prefer excuses. They call it `lack of concentration' and attribute it to external factors though the problem lies with them.
Intellectual endurance
Intellectual endurance is the staying power, the capacity to persist, without getting distracted. Take a single digit and three digit numbers of your choice ...say 8 and 556.

Without the help of a pen and paper, go on adding 7 to the first and deduct 7 from the later (15-549, 22-542 etc). At one point your brain does not cooperate, but don't stop. Take a few minutes' rest and start again. This is one way of developing intellectual endurance.
Mental flexibility
Mental flexibility includes finding new combinations and new possibilities. If somebody asks you how you cut a cake into eight pieces with just three cuts, its not possible to explain though you know that a `plus' (+) cut above the cake, followed by a horizontal slice solves the problem. 

Visual thinking does not play a role here, but verbal communication does. Split the cake into four parts with two cross cuts, place them one above the other and cut them vertically to make eight pieces. Mental flexibility is thus switching from one mode of thinking to another.
Emotional coordination
Emotional coordination deals with timing, balance and agility to work out things. It is like orchestrating our work with several things at a time. The purpose of life is to live a life of purpose. "Great minds have purposes and little minds have wishes," said Irving Washington. The choice is ours. 

Yandamoori Veerendranath 

Be confident, keep concentrating

More on the approach to be adopted in the examination hall

  Think before you ink 
Let us look at a few more strategies to be adopted in the examination hall. If you feel that a very significant point or word should be highlighted, there is no harm in writing it in capital letters or resorting to underlining.

Reading the right way

Reading widely provides vital tools to learn about a variety of subjects. There are ways to maximize the benefits of this pleasurable activity

RACING AGAINST TIME: Read faster by all means. Just ensure the content is not lost on you.

KISS and seal the deal

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Some people revel in complicating simple things. But keeping it simple is not so simple either!!

EASY WAY: Sometimes difficult situations call for a casual approach. 
How do refrigerators work? Bulbs light? How do the batteries work?
Eyeglasses function? Why do we breathe? What makes the seasons? How do we hear the sounds? How do airplanes fly? Why is the ice slippery? Why and how do we get sick? What is plastic?
How many of these questions can you answer in a simple sentence without much complication? Try and you will find it very difficult to communicate, though you know the correct answer in detail. There are two ways of conceiving and conveying a thought. One is to make it so simple that there are obviously no deficiencies and the other is to make it so complicated that there are no obvious deficiencies.
KISS factor
The first method is far more difficult. Believe that every time when you have to choose between "making things right" and "making things simple", the simple path is much better for you. It is called `KISS' principle, Keep It Simple and Straightforward.
When to complicate
Arriving at a simple answer does not mean that you should not think about the complicated alternatives. How do you weigh a cat? According to Edward De Bono, known for his concept of lateral thinking, there are many choices. Tie the cat in a plastic bag and weigh. Or you can also keep a biscuit on the platform and find the weight while it is eating. Or drug the cat and weigh. But the best thing is to hold it with you and stand on the scale. Deduct your weight from the total.
We don't find better solutions and alternatives if we are satisfied with the first thing that comes into our mind. "Think of how many names your parents would have considered before selecting the best for you. Would you really like to have been called by the very first name that came to your parents' minds?" says De Bono.

There is no such thing as the best programming language. Different languages are best suited for different tasks. Good designer is the one who can select (and use) a good tool for the job at hand.
The alternatives
A student's intelligence depends on analysing all the complications of the problem, but putting across the final answer in the simplest way. For a question in physics at the University of Copenhagen to describe how to determine the height of a skyscraper with the help of a barometer, a student replied, "Tie a string and lower it. The length of the string is the height of the building".
The highly original and simple answer irritated the examiner and the student was failed. In an appeal, the arbiter judged that the answer was indeed correct, but wanted the student to give another alternative with the `basic principles of physics'. He was given five minutes time. The student was in deep thought. On being reminded that the time is running out, the student said he could not select from a bunch of extremely relevant answers, of course all based on `physics'.
While asked to hurry up he said, "Drop the barometer from the top and measure the time. The height of the building can then be worked out from the formula H = 0.5g multiplied by `t' squared" he continued, "Or you can swing the barometer first at the ground and then on the roof. The height is worked out by the difference in the gravitational restoring force T=2 pi sq root (1/g)"

To the stunned examiner the student further explained, "Or if the sun is shining, calculate the shadows of the both and it's a simple proportional arithmetic computation." And the student finally said, "If you want the orthodox answer, measure the air pressure with the barometer at the roof and at the ground level and convert the difference in millibars into feet to arrive at the height of the building".
The student was Niels Bohr, the only scientist from Denmark to win the Nobel Prize for Physics. 


A time to question ourselves

Our friendship is confined only to 'mass class bunk', enjoyment and roaming aimlessly. "Is it competition or jealousy that overshadows our honesty"? Straight from the heart of students

FUN UNLIMITED Making the most of their newfound freedom.
 It's time for juniors to step into their college. A place where they feel as though their souls are liberated from the bondage and baggage of books, their wrist watches can decorate themselves to have fun and rest after having a tough time with their second's hand.
It's true that we enjoy freedom in college, but for a moment, the quivering lips of my junior, her simplicity, and her two shoulder bag, were all triggering at me one question that: "Are you still living those morals and principles you have learnt in your past years of education?" 

I wonder if we are the same ones as we were a couple of years ago. Be it the case of respecting teacher's, loving friends, or caring for classmates, are we mere hypocrites or is our sincerity genuine? The reply is obvious.
I sincerely feel that most of our collegians are too busy to acknowledge the concern they receive from their "marking machines". 

But what really astonishes me is that we don't find ourselves guilty showing such disrespect in our thoughts and attitude towards our lecturers. "Did our conscience lose its voice or have we turned a deaf ear towards it?"
I don't think we can really find Shakespeare's Antonio and Bassanio in today's world of complicated relationships.

  Our friendship is confined only to `mass class bunk' enjoyment and roaming aimlessly.
We are helpful only when helped, truthful only about a third person and spend hours in gossiping.

However I cannot skip the concern a student has, when he remains silent and does not disturb his classmate's sleep in the middle of a lecture. "Is it the competition or the jealousy that overshadowed our honesty?"
It's high time we stop pretending and be sincere before we are misled by our chaotic freedom.
Apart from building this society into a techno savvy world, it is also our duty to make it a better place to live.
Why don't we start treating words like compassion, concern, honesty, punctuality and respect not just like `adjectives' in English language, but great and rare qualities a person should posses. 

Samantha Tamma

Cry aloud... my beloved country

Why don't some people take a breather from violence? The sentiment seems to overwhelm them

LAST HOPE: Children speak a different language. It is more vibrant, less vicious. Hopefully the innocence will 
One should find a cause to dream and a destiny to accomplish. The poet's words keep ringing in our ears: "Miles to go before I sleep and miles to go before I sleep..."
As the sun sinks into the ocean, we feel a greater realization of the call of duty. The dawn is welcomed into our world amidst cries for peace, the slogans of communal violence, fanaticism and atrocities against the weaker sections. 

One cannot but help think about the days of the yore, when it was all peace and tranquillity.
The divine chants and the mantras of sages filled the air with a rare power and peace. The land in which the Buddha, Vivekananda and, in the recent past, Gandhi and many other great sons of Bharat preached and practiced harmony and patriotism seemed to move a little bit away from that glory. 

None to pay heed 

We required a new commitment and a rededication to values. In the presence and even in the silence of the nature, I hear the sobbing of a mother- a mother, who is sad over her children facing a variety of problems.
Mindless exploitation of nature and environmental degradation were the only gifts from her children. The children, whom she brought up in her lap, now began to use nuclear weapons. 

These actions pierced her soul and raised a new threat to the notion of peace. In their childhood she whispered into them, "There is only one God, only one religion, whatever may be the profession of faith, humanity is one".
Now she is helpless, when they run around with swords to capture lands. All kinds of maladies plague the modern generations. Infanticide was another problem that disturbed the common psyche. Gender discrimination and social pressures posed a threat to gender equality.

The sight of impoverished children shocked all of us. She gave even herself to her children to nourish themselves. There was a special relationship between God and each human being. I remember a poet who sang about the sanctity of Indian women. Somebody bent upon exploiting the relationships spoilt the atmosphere.
We had an immediate duty to restore that pristine glory of innocence and fellow feeling in our country.
Our country is torn apart by communal violence. They carry out these activities in the garb of religion, caste, political and geographical differences.
Yet there is a ray of hope. Indians, regardless of their caste and creed, displayed a rare unity and a common liking for peace. 
Duty of the youth 

Does the cry for peace touch the walls of my heart? Am I ready to rise above my own personal interest and respond to the common need?
Can I wipe the tears off from my mother's cheeks? It is our mission. Let us strive hard for a new world. Let us walk all the miles before we sleep.


Choose between maze and space

There are people who carefully `preserve' rusty needles. Apparently, it will be of some use, some day. Some others prefer to sit atop clutter and work. These are not necessarily limitations, as long as they help you achieve your goals 

 WHERE ARE YOU PLACED?: Students can be divided into five categories on the basis of their space management styles.
While discussing the book `How to be organised in spite of yourself' by Sunny Schlenger, who classifies the standards of a student into two broad categories, time management and space controlling, we identified five types students with regard to time controlling: `hoppers' who prefer to do many things at a time, `perfectionists' wasting their time polishing the minute details, `skippers' looking at the big picture and failing at small important niceties, `cliff hangers' who are able to work only under pressure, and `fence sitters' who never take a decision for fear of failure.
Pertaining to space controlling the author says that when we are immersed in great many activities, it is almost impossible to have a hassle-free existence. But still we can have a place for everything and everything in its place. Schlenger recognises five types of people in this regard.

Dumpers: These people are happy to keep everything on their table and be pleased to look at the work they are contemplating. Or some may also think "Anyway I have to work next day and hence why put them back today?" A student with this attitude wastes much time to locate the notes buried between the books. These people suffer a lack of storage space and confuse with major paper processing problem at a later phase. Parents should be able to teach the children from their initial stages about placing things in a systematic way. 
Clean-desks: For this type of people, clean desk means clean mind. Every paper is hidden, replaced by small statues or flowers. They are supposed to be good at work, provided they maintain records. They follow the daily planners, otherwise they fail to complete the schedulesunder the influence of tranquillity and peace of mind.

Right Anglers: Clutter does not bother the right anglers as long as it is arranged properly. Neatness is more important to them. According to the author, a need to feel in control, compulsively straightening things, and valuing form over substance are the hallmarks of this kind of people. They should understand that unorthodox management systems are okay as long as their systems are workable. They should cultivate the habit of being merciless about discarding junk. The problem with right angler students is that they don't like to start any `big' work that they cannot finish it in one sitting. They need to re-organise tasks into smaller and more easily completed jobs.

Pack rats: A person who saves everything with an un-compromised belief that it may come in handy someday is a pack rat. They feel sentimental about their possessions and sometimes preserve worthless things as treasures. They are unable to decide what to keep and what to throw away. They have to develop the tendency of giving away needless things. They should recognise the value of space and comfort. The philosophy that `everything perishes some with time' suits perfectly to pack rats.

Total slobs: Unlike the above type, these people save the things without any intention. They do not value possessions. Still the idea of discarding never occurs to them. They hate to organise and generally are the product of bad parenting. They are sometimes absent minded, short-tempered or may be depressed also.

They should cultivate the habit of making changes gradually. For example, instead of throwing the clothes everywhere, they can place them at a particular place.
It is up to you. One should know what one wants, how to get there and what to do if one cannot go there. Goethe, the nineteenth century poet and scientist correctly said, "Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things that matter least". And that is `organising life'.

Yandamoori Veerendranath

Reading to understand

Heard about 4R and SQ3R method? If not, get to know and try them out. They may make you more effective in your studies 

GATHERING POINTS: Silent reading is also needed.  
Instances when we should read aloud have been touched upon earlier in these columns. But most of the time, we shall not be reading to enjoy poetry, or correct errors in pronunciation. So, it is not necessary to read aloud always.
In fact, reading aloud has its defects. Suppose, we are reading a newspaper to quickly have an idea of the important news items. By reading aloud, we cannot do that. On the other hand, silently glance through the headlines and read selectively. 
We read only what is of interest to us. This is possible by reading silently and not loudly. By reading aloud for a long time, we feel tired because by wasting energy. Hence, for studying for a long time, we have to read silently. There is yet another defect in loud reading. We go on reading at a steady speed. Certain ideas may be difficult to grasp. To digest them, we may have to pause, think for some time and then proceed.
A loud reader may not do this. He goes on reading a whole lesson at a stretch at the same speed and then, think that he has studied the chapter.
The truth is that he has passed through the sentences without following what they meant. Moreover, a loud reader reads every word of a passage even if he knows the ideas contained in them.
A silent reader has the advantage of being able to skip the portions he knows well. Some may not read aloud, but they move their lips and tongue as if they are pronouncing each word. Here again, there is the disadvantage that the reader may not change the speed of his reading in keeping with the difficulty level of the passage.
He may pass the passages without understanding the contents properly. Or, he may waste his time slowly reading something he already knows very well. It is true that he does not waste energy by reading aloud. 
Still, he goes through the passages at a steady speed. Also, he is likely to believe that he has mastered the lesson by just going through the lines. We may read silently while studying lessons. Read slowly when we find a passage difficult. Read fast if we feel that a certain portion is easy. If we come across something which we know well, skip it.

All these are simple steps which anybody can easily follow. Experts have made detailed study on reading and have suggested some good methods. We shall go into a couple of them that help improve study habits.

The 4R method Keep in mind four words starting with the letter R: read, recall, reflect and review. 

Read: not just read mechanically, but read carefully, understand every point, question anything unclear, and find the answer to the questions. 

Recall: Stop after a portion has been read, try to remember what you just finished reading, go back to the text if you cannot remember something, and try to write the formula or draw the sketch, if any, in the portion you have read. You should be thorough with what you have learnt. Only after making sure that you have learnt it well, should you proceed further.

Reflect: After some time when you are free, you may try to think about what you have learnt. Perhaps, you will be able to connect the new knowledge with something you already have in mind. This will help you keep the ideas firmly in the mind, and to apply the knowledge in a new situation. 

Review: After a long time, you may try to look back on what you studied. At this stage, you may have forgotten certain things you had studied earlier; but you can quickly bring them back to mind by glancing through the text. 

The SQ3R method: 

The letters stand for survey, question, read, recite, and review. 

Survey: Before you start reading, go through the title, headings, subheadings, pictures and their captions, graphs, charts and maps. You may also look at the chapter summaries, conclusions and review questions. 

Question: While surveying, raise questions such as why you should read the text, what prior knowledge you have on this subject, and how reading this will help you. 

Read: This is the most significant activity. Read with full concentration, focusing your mind on the lesson content, underlining the most important phrases and merging pictures or graphs, if any, with the explanation in the text. Adjust your reading speed to suit the difficulty-level of the passage you are reading. Check if you get the answers to the questions you had raised in the beginning. Try to find answers to the questions at the end of the chapter. Write what you find to be very tough, and also the matter you have to memorise, such as poems or definitions. Solve numerical problems. Try to draw sketches from your memory. Read again what you could not grasp fully in the first reading. Use a dictionary to get the meaning of words. Make notes covering the essential points. Read in manageable chunks. 

Recite: Soon after reading a section, try to summarise in your mind what you just finished reading. Try to recite it in your own words. Which means that you have to speak it aloud. This is the most effective method for transferring material from one's short-term memory to long-term memory. If necessary, improve your notes. Answer the questions orally. Recitation enriches learning, since it involves seeing, saying, and hearing. This process very powerfully hammers the material in your memory. 

 Review: This has to be done at intervals to confirm fully your learning. You should be able to answer all the questions. Any area which is not clear to you should be learnt again. Instead of SQ3R, some suggest SQ4R, the fourth R representing words such as record, repeat, respond, revise or rite (meaning write)


Key centres for study of foreign languages

A list of universities and the courses offered

Choices aplenty: Osmania University offers M.Phil and PG diploma courses in French, Arabic, Persian and other languages 

Let us look at some institutions that have facilities for learning foreign languages.
This university with Hyderabad as its headquarters has regional centres at Lucknow and Shillong.
Contacts: The English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad-500 605; Ph: 040-27098131, Web: www.efluniversity.ac.in

Moti Mahal Campus, 2, Rana Pratap Marg Lucknow-226 001; Ph: 0522-2216073
NEHU Permanent Complex, Umshing-Mawkynroh, Shillong - 793022; Ph: 0364-2231648
Academic structure
The university has 11 schools and 38 departments, as shown below.
School of English Language Education
English as a Second Language (ESL) Studies
Materials Development, Testing and Evaluation
Training, Development and Education
School of Language Sciences
Phonetics and Spoken English
Linguistics and Contemporary English
Computational Linguistics
School of English Literary Studies
English Literature
English Literature of Commonwealth countries
American and Caribbean Literatures
Literary Theory and Criticism
School of Distance Education
English Language Teaching, Linguistics and Phonetics
Literatures in English
Distance Education in Foreign Languages and Literatures
School of Communication Studies
Media and Communication
Journalism and Mass Communication
Film Studies and Visual Communication
School of Interdisciplinary Studies
Arts, Aesthetics and Comparative Philosophy
Comparative Literature
Cultural Studies
Social Exclusion Studies
Hindi and India Studies
Translation Studies
School of Middle-East and African Studies
Arabic Language and Linguistics
Arabic Literature
School of Asian Studies
Chinese, Japanese and Korean Studies
Persian Studies
Turkish Studies
School of Germanic Studies
German Language and Linguistics
German Literature
Germanic Languages and Literatures
Austrian and Swiss-German Literatures
School of Romance Studies
French Studies
Francophone Studies
Hispanic Studies
Portuguese Studies
Italian Studies
School of Russian Studies
Russian Language and Linguistics
Russian Literature

Academic programmes:

Main programmes at Hyderabad:
English: Ph.D., M.Phil., five-year integrated M.A. English and MCJ,
two-year M.A., two-year M.A. TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language), two-year M.A. English, linguistics, 
B.Ed. English, Postgraduate Diploma in the Teaching of English.

In addition to these classroom programmes, there are facilities for distance education for programmes such as Ph.D., M.Phil., M.A., and PG Diploma/ Certificate in the Teaching of English.

Foreign languages

Research programme: Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish
Advanced diploma: Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish

Five-year integrated M.A. course in Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish

Two-year M.A. course in Arabic and French
PG diploma in the Teaching of Arabic

Diploma: Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish

Certificate of proficiency: Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish

Lucknow centre: Five-year integrated M.A. English, two-year M.A. English, PG diploma in the Teaching of English, M.Phil. and Ph.D. (linguistics and phonetics), part-time courses in French and German.

Shillong centre: five-year integrated M.A. English and MCJ, two-year M.A. English, PG Diploma in the Teaching of English, M.Phil. and Ph.D. (English language education), part-time courses in German

University of Delhi
Ph.D.: German, Hispanic, Linguistics, Persian
M.Phil.: Arabic, Bulgarian language, French, German, Hispanic Italian, Linguistics, Persian, Russian
M.A.: Arabic, French, German, Hispanic, Italian, Linguistics Persian
B.A. (Hons): French, German, Persian, Spanish, Zongha, Arabic,
Diploma / certificate/others: advanced diploma: applied linguistics, Bulgarian/ Croatian / Czech / French / German/ Hungarian/ Italian/ Modern / Persian / Polish / Russian / Serbian / Slovak languages
Contact: 011-27667853; web site: www.du.ac.in

BHU, Varanasi
Ph.D.: Different departments
M.A.: Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Persian, Russian, Nepali, Pali, linguistics
One-year PG Diploma in Japanese Studies
B.A. (Hons): Arabic, Persian, Pali, Nepali, Chinese, German, French, Russian, linguistics
Undergraduate diploma (two years): Arabic, Chinese, French Studies, German Studies, Nepali, Persian, Russian, Sinhalese
(There may be differences in the programmes during certain academic years.)
Web site: www.bhu.ac.in

University of Madras
The Department of French and other Foreign Languages, Chepauk, Chennai-600005 offers the following courses:
M.Phil.: French
M.A.: French
Diploma/ certificate: French, German, Italian, Spanish
Ph: 044-2539 9424; web site: www.unom.ac.in

Osmania University, Hyderabad

M.Phil.: Arabic, French
M.A.: Arabic, French, Persian

PG Diploma: Translation in Arabic, Applied linguistics

Junior Diploma: French, German, Russian, Arabic, Persian (admission after Plus Two)

Senior Diploma: French, German, Russian (admission after Junior Diploma with at least 50 per cent marks or a Bachelor's degree in the second class)

Advanced Diploma: French, German, Russian (admission after Senior Diploma with at least 50 per cent marks)


Jamia Millia Islamia

Ph.D.: Arabic, Persian
M.A.: Arabic, Persian
B.A. (Hons): Arabic, Persian

Advanced Diploma: Modern Arabic Language and Translation, Modern Persian, Turkmenian, Turkish, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Russian, Italian

Diploma: Modern Arabic, Modern Persian, Turkemenian, Turkish, Pashto, Kazhaki, Uzbek, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Russian, Italian

Certificate: Modern Arabic, Modern Persian, Turkmenian, Turkish, Pashto, Kazhaki, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Russian, Italian
Ph: 011-26981717, website: http://www.jmi.ac.in

University of Mumbai

Ph.D.: Arabic, French, Persian

M.A.: Arabic, French, Persian
B.A.: Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Pali, Persian, Portuguese, Russian,

Advanced Diploma: Arabic, German, Russian

Diploma: Arabic, French, German, Pali, Persian, Russian

Certificate: Arabic, French, German, Italian, Persian, Polish, Russian.